The Impact of Congenitally Missing Teeth on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures
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Unlike laboratory or clinical indices, patient-reported outcomes may provide more information on the physical and psychosocial effects of various conditions. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the available literature regarding the impact of tooth agenesis on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and adolescents using psychometrically validated instruments. Search without restrictions for published and unpublished literature and hand searching took place. Data from studies investigating the impact of tooth agenesis on OHRQoL of children and adolescents using psychometrically validated instruments were reviewed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the controlled studies and the Quality Assessment Tool of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) for the studies without a control group. From the initially retrieved records, four studies, two of which also involved a control group, and using the The Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 instrument (CPQ11-14) finally met the inclusion criteria. The included studies demonstrated that hypodontia had impacts in children and adolescents, especially regarding oral symptoms and functional limitations. However, the results of the comparison with the control groups were conflicting. Overall, no correlation between the number of missing teeth, age and gender and the OHRQoL of children and adolescents with hypodontia was observed. The presence of retained primary teeth seemed to mitigate the effects of hypodontia on OHRQoL. Tooth agenesis exerts an impact on OHRQoL of children and adolescents. Better designed and standardized future studies are warranted in order to fully understand the effect of the condition and address these impacts.