Role of flavonoids in thrombotic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases
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Abstract: The failure of mechanisms of natural anti-coagulation either due to genetic impairment or due to severe external injuries may result in a condition called thrombosis. This is believed to be the primary cause for a variety of life-threatening conditions such as: heart attack, stroke, pulmonary embolism, thrombophlebitis, and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The growing number of these incidents requires an alternative anti-coagulant or anti-thrombotic agent that has minimal side effects and improved efficiency. For decades, plant polyphenols, especially flavonoids, were known for their vital role in preventing various diseases such as cancer. Mitigating excessive oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) with anti-oxidant-rich flavonoids may reduce the risk of hyper-activation of platelets, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), pain, and thrombosis. Furthermore, flavonoids may mitigate endothelial dysfunction (ED), which generally correlates to the development of coronary artery and vascular diseases. Flavonoids also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and atherothrombotic disease by inhibiting excessive tissue factor (TF) availability in the endothelium. Although the role of flavonoids in CVD is widely discussed, to the best of our knowledge, their role as anti-thrombotic lead has not been discussed. This review aims to focus on the biological uses of dietary flavonoids and their role in the treatment of various coagulation disorders, and may provide some potential lead to the drug discovery process in this area.