Thymoquinone, a Dietary Bioactive Compound, Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis by Stimulating Expression of the Colonic Epithelial PPAR-γ Transcription Factor
Adrian, Thomas E.
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Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Here, we investigated thymoquinone (TQ), a naturally occurring phytochemical present in Nigella sativa, for anti-inflammatory effects in colonic inflammation. To address this, we used in vivo (mice) and in vitro (HT-29 cells) models in this investigation. Our results showed that TQ treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and protected colon microscopic architecture. In addition, TQ also reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators at both the mRNA and protein levels. Further, TQ decreased phosphorylation of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) proteins and enhanced colon epithelial PPAR-γ transcription factor expression. TQ significantly decreased proinflammatory chemokines (CXCL-1 and IL-8), and mediator (COX-2) mRNA expression in HT-29 cells treated with TNF-α. TQ also increased HT-29 PPAR-γ mRNA, PPAR-γ protein expression, and PPAR-γ promoter activity. These results indicate that TQ inhibits MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and transcriptionally regulates PPAR-γ expression to induce potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of colon inflammation.