Kidney Dysfunction among COVID-19 Patients in the United Arab Emirates
Hachim, Mahmood Y.
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Objectives: We sought to determine the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among patients with COVID-19 and to examine its correlation with different demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics. Methods: This study examined patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and enrolled at Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, 186 × (SCr mg/dL)-1.154 × (age)-0203 × 0.742 [if female] × 1.212 [if black], and compared for 250 COVID-19 cases and 153 non-COVID-19 controls. Analysis were performed using univariate statistics. Results: The overall mean age of the cohort was 47.2±14.0 years, and 54.6% (n = 220) were males. The results showed that 45.3% of COVID-19 patients had mild-severe renal impairment, as reflected in the eGFR. When compared to patients with normal eGFR, those with severe renal impairment were older (62.5 vs. 40.2 years; p < 0.001), more likely to be male (100% vs. 71.1%; p = 0.016), and have comorbidities (90.9% vs. 40.0%; p < 0.001) including diabetes mellitus (72.7% vs. 21.5%; p < 0.001) and hypertension (72.7% vs. 25.2%; p = 0.003). They were also more likely to be associated with those that had severe (36.4% vs. 25.9%; p < 0.001) and critical (63.6% vs. 16.3%; p < 0.001) COVID-19 infection as well as intensive care unit admission (72.7% vs. 16.3%; p < 0.001). Correlational analysis showed a significant association between renal function indicators and different laboratory markers, including hematological indices and different liver enzymes. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine the renal function among COVID-19 cases in the Middle East. Nearly half of COVID-19 patients had moderate to severe renal impairment. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were the most common underlying comorbidities associated with moderate-severe renal function impairment among COVID-19 patients.