Analgesia and sedation modalities used with botulinum toxin injections in children with cerebral palsy: a literature review
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Abstract: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-progressive motor dysfunction leading to multiple morbidities, including spasticity, which can be managed with botulinum toxin injection (BTI). This literature review aims to examine published studies on the efficacy and safety of different interventions used to reduce pain and anxiety associated with BTI in children with CP. A literature review of all published evidence in English language, or with an English translation between 1999 and 2019, using PubMed, EBSCO host, and Medline databases was carried out. All identified papers were screened for inclusion criteria. Data from included papers were entered and analyzed on an Excel database. Twenty-one studies conducted in multiple clinical settings identified 10 different analgesia and sedation modalities including intravenous ketamine, midazolam, inhaled nitrous oxide, general anesthesia, and Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA®) cream. Most of the studies were descriptive with the exception of two clinical trials and one qualitative study. All interventions had some adverse effects, but they were generally mild and no long-term sequelae were reported. The combination of inhaled nitrous oxide with EMLA® cream showed promising primary results. However, ketamine and midazolam combination could be a safe alternative. Currently, there is no sufficient data to draw on the superiority of any modality. Further high-quality studies are warranted.