Prevalence of the additional head of quadriceps femoris in the South Indian population: a cadaveric and radiological study
Prithishkumar, Ivan James
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Abstract: Quadriceps femoris is an extensor muscle in the anterior compartment of thigh and is traditionally taught to be composed of four heads. Recently, there is an increased interest in the occurrence of an additional muscle head of quadriceps femoris. But scientifc knowledge regarding its incidence is lacking in the South Indian population. This study was done to confrm the presence of the additional head by routine anatomic dissection and radiological imaging techniques. Forty-one formalin fxed human cadaveric lower limbs were dissected and the morphology of the additional head was noted. Retrospective analysis of 88 MRI images of patients was done. The additional muscle head was present in 43.9% of the cadaveric lower limbs and was consistently located between the vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius. It originated from variable portions of the greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, lateral lip of linea aspera and lateral surface of the shaft of femur and inserted either as a muscle belly or as an aponeurosis into the vastus intermedius (55.6%), vastus lateralis (22.2%) or directly into the base of the patella. It received its vascular supply from branches of the lateral circumfex femoral artery and was innervated by branches from the posterior division of the femoral nerve. In addition, the additional muscle head was identifed by MRI and its incidence was reported to be 30.68% for the frst time in living subjects. The result of this study provides additional information in understanding the morphology of the quadriceps femoris muscle.