The Prevalence of Periodontitis in Obese Adults In The Kingdom Of Bahrain
Al Salihi, Leena
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Adult obesity in Bahrain is an increasing problem and evidence suggests obesity could be a novel risk factor for periodontitis. This study aimed to assess prevalence of periodontitis in overweight/obese adults attending Ministry of Health (MOH) clinics in Bahrain and to determine which measure of obesity, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC), is associated with periodontitis. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of overweight subjects attending MOH Nutrition Clinics at primary health centers. Ethical approval and patient consent were obtained prior to the study. A range of demographic and anthropometric data, including BMI and WC using WHO thresholds for severity of obesity, were recorded. Dental assessments of periodontal status were based on CPI probing depths at six sites per tooth and the extent of periodontal disease was categorized according to the number of sextants with CPI codes 3 and 4. A total of 372 participated with a mean age 44.0 (±10.5) years for males, and 42.5 (±11.2) years for females. Periodontitis was present in 361 (97%) of participants. Hypertension and diabetes were the most prevalent co-morbidities at 23.4% and 16% respectively. Mean WC was significantly greater in males at 114cm (±15.6) compared to females 109.5cm (±12.5) (p<0.001). BMI was not associated with severity or extent of periodontitis but WC was weakly correlated in males but not in females (Spearman rho=+0.2, p<0.05). In the logistic regression model using overall WC to predict the severity of periodontitis, the adjusted OR was 1.02 (95%CI 1.00-1.04) and for age it was 1.05 (95%CI 1.00-1.07). The prevalence of periodontitis was high in this sample of overweight Bahrainis. BMI was not correlated with periodontitis but WC had a weak positive correlation. Implementation of a periodontal health screening as a routine part of a Nutrition Clinic program is required as a preventive approach.