Tissue Engineering Strategies to Increase Osteochondral Regeneration of Stem Cells; a Close Look at Different Modalities
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Abstract: The homeostasis of osteochondral tissue is tightly controlled by articular cartilage chondrocytes and underlying subchondral bone osteoblasts via different internal and external clues. As a correlate, the osteochondral region is frequently exposed to physical forces and mechanical pressure. On this basis, distinct sets of substrates and physicochemical properties of the surrounding matrix affect the regeneration capacity of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Stem cells are touted as an alternative cell source for the alleviation of osteochondral diseases. These cells appropriately respond to the physicochemical properties of different biomaterials. This review aimed to address some of the essential factors which participate in the chondrogenic and osteogenic capacity of stem cells. Elements consisted of biomechanical forces, electrical fields, and biochemical and physical properties of the extracellular matrix are the major determinant of stem cell differentiation capacity. It is suggested that an additional certain mechanism related to signal-transduction pathways could also mediate the chondro-osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. The discovery of these clues can enable us to modulate the regeneration capacity of stem cells in osteochondral injuries and lead to the improvement of more operative approaches using tissue engineering modalities.