Etiology of Peri-Implantitis
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Purpose of Review: Peri-implant diseases represent the biological complications associated with implant therapy. They are defined as inflammatory responses of the peri-implant soft tissues with or without progressive loss of marginal bone. The term peri-implantitis is used when the bone loss extends beyond initial bone remodeling after loading. Knowledge of the etiology and case definitions of peri-implant diseases are used to evaluate the impact of peri-implant diseases on the long-term survival and maintenance of dental implants. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about case definitions and contemporary understanding of the etiopathogenesis of peri-implant diseases. Recent Findings: Recent studies have evaluated the instigation of peri-implant mucositis and its natural deterioration to periimplantitis. Animal models, similar to the ones used for showcasing biofilm-induced periodontal disease, have been utilized to understand the inflammatory response of supporting soft and hard tissue around dental implants. In addition, similarities have been drawn regarding the microbial composition around diseased natural teeth and implants. Summary: A better insight of the pattern of disease progression and understanding of the host response to the increased inflammatory overload provides a foundation on which future research studies can focus on host-microbial interactions and therapies that could lead to more favorable outcomes in prevention and treatment of peri-implant diseases.