Does common prescription medication affect the rate of orthodontic tooth movement? A systematic review
Makrygiannakis, Miltiadis A.
Kaklamanos, Eleftherios G.
Athanasiou, Athanasios E.
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Background: As the taking of any medication may theoretically affect the complex pathways responsible for periodontal tissue homeostasis and the events leading to orthodontic tooth movement, it is considered important for the orthodontist to be able to identify prospective patients’ history and patterns of pharmaceutical consumption. Objective: To systematically investigate and appraise the quality of the available evidence regarding the effect of commonly prescribed medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Search methods: Search without restrictions in eight databases and hand searching until June 2017. Selection criteria: Controlled studies investigating the effect of commonly prescribed medications with emphasis on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Data collection and analysis: Following study retrieval and selection, relevant data was extracted and the risk of bias was assessed using the SYRCLE’s Risk of Bias Tool. Results: Twenty-seven animal studies, involving various pharmacologic and orthodontic interventions, were finally identified. Most studies were assessed to be at unclear or high risk of bias. The rate of orthodontic tooth movement was shown to increase after the administration of diazepam, Vitamin C and pantoprazole, while simvastatin, atorvastatin, calcium compounds, strontium ranelate, propranolol, losartan, famotidine, cetirizine, and metformin decreased the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. No interference with the rate of orthodontic tooth movement was reported for phenytoin, phenobarbital and zinc compounds, whereas, inconsistent or conflicting effects were noted after the administration of L-thyroxine, lithium compounds, fluoxetine and insulin. The quality of the available evidence was considered at best as low. Conclusions: Commonly prescribed medications may exhibit variable effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Although the quality of evidence was considered at best as low, raising reservations about the strength of the relevant recommendations, the clinician should be capable of identifying patients taking medications and should take into consideration the possible implications related to the proposed treatment.