Does the rate of orthodontic tooth movement change during pregnancy and lactation? A systematic review of the evidence from animal studies
Kaklamanos, Eleftherios G
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Background: The changes in bone homeostasis observed during pregnancy and lactation could result in alterations in the rate of orthodontic tooth movement, but research in human subjects presents significant ethical and practical limitations. Our aim was to compare the amount of orthodontic tooth movement between pregnant/ lactating or not animals. Methods: We searched without restrictions 8 databases and performed hand searching until July 2019 (PubMed, Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Arab World Research Source, ClinicalTrials.gov, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global). We searched for studies comparing quantitatively the amount of orthodontic tooth movement between pregnant/lactating or not animals. Following retrieval and selection of studies, the collection of related data was performed and the risk of bias was assessed using the SYRC LE’s Risk of Bias Tool. Exploratory synthesis was carried out using the random effects model. Results: Four studies were finally identified raising no specific concerns regarding bias. One study showed that lactation increased the rate of tooth movement by 50 % [p < 0.05]. Although an overall increase was noted in the pregnancy group as well, it did not reach statistical significance [3 studies, Weighted Mean Difference: 0.10; 95% Confidence Interval: − 0.04 - 0.24; p = 0.165]. Conclusions: The metabolic changes occurring during pregnancy and lactation may have an impact on the rate of tooth movement in animals. Although these animal experimental results should be approached cautiously, it could be safe practice to consider the impact of these physiological changes in the clinical setting.