Titanium particles: An emerging risk factor for peri-implant bone loss
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Objective: To investigate the presence of titanium particles in peri-implant tissues in cases diagnosed with peri-implantitis, and to identify immunological reactions that these particles may elicit. Methods: Ten peri-implant tissue biopsies of patients diagnosed clinically and radiographically with peri-implantitis were obtained from the archives of Oral Pathology Centre, University of Otago. The inclusion criteria involves: bleeding on probing, _6 mm probing depth and _3 mm radiographic bone loss around the dental implant. Peri-implant tissue samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to identify of sites with/without titanium particles. Antibodies against human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-b1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), interleukin 33 (IL-33) and cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) were used to stain the specimens. ImageJ software was used to standardise the sampling area, compare and characterise the inflammatory infiltrate in tissues with/without titanium particles. Inflammatory cytokines positivity was assessed using the immunoreactive scores (IRSs). Results: Light microscopy and SEM-EDS analysis identified titanium wear particles in 90% of the tissue samples, associated with a mixed chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Quantification analysis of RANKL revealed significantly higher IRS and intensity scores (p< 0.05) in areas containing.