The pattern of oral and maxillofacial injuries among patients attending Fujairah Hospital, Fujairah, UAE.
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Objective: To determine the pattern of oral and maxillofacial injuries among patients attended Fujairah Hospital, Fujairah, UAE. Study design: Descriptive retrospective hospital based study. Study population: All patients who attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department- Fujairah Hospital for the treatment of oral and maxillofacial injuries during the period of the study. Methodology: This is a retrospective study of patients who had attended Fujairah Hospital between 2003 till 2015, with oral and maxillofacial injuries using a structured form to obtain the relevant information. Socio-demographic information (age, gender, education level), type of injury, place where the injury took place, and the causes of injury were recorded. Clinical findings were recorded such as: type of injury, site of injury, single or multiple, soft tissue or hard tissue injury. The hard tissue injury was categorized as a fracture of nasal bone, maxilla, mandible, zygoma, frontal, palatal and orbital bones. Radiological investigations, including plain skull radiography, orthopantomograph and where necessary a computed tomography (CT) were reviewed. The treatment offered and treatment outcomes were also recorded. The data were entered into a computer data base (SPSS) version 20 for statistical analysis. An association of maxillofacial injury parameters and type of injuries was evaluated using Chi –square test. A significant level p <0.05 was used to draw out conclusions. Results: Road traffic accidents (RTA) were the most (34.8%) common causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries. The introduction of the compulsory seatbelt law has dramatically reduced the incidence of the maxillary facial injuries from 62.6% prior to the introduction of the law to 24.0% after the law introduction. Five hundred and forty-eight patients (76.4%) had sustained fractures of either the mandible, mid face or both and 335 (46.8%) patients sustained fracture mandible and 122 (17%) sustained fractured zygomatic complex including zygomatic arch, while 91 patients (12.7%) diagnosed with maxillary fracture. Surgical wound debridement and wound suturing were the most common method of treatment for soft tissue injuries, while mandibulomaxillary fixation was the most (45.3%) widely used method of treatment of bony injuries prior to 2008. Likewise, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) has been widely used method after 2008. Conclusion: This study showed that maxillofacial injuries in Fujairah are similar to national, regional characteristics. These findings should alert the authorities, particularly the government and the Road Safety Authority on the need for the enforcement of existing traffic laws and to raise the awareness among the public about the magnitude of the problem.