Whole Salivary Interleukin-6 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 Levels in Patients With Chronic Periodontitis With and Without Prediabetes
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Background: The cytokine profile in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) of patients with prediabetes and chronic periodontitis (CP) remains uninvestigated. The aim of this study is to assess interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 levels in UWS of patients with CP with and without prediabetes. Methods: Eighty-eight males (aged 39 to 51 years) were divided into three groups: group 1: 28 patients with CP and prediabetes; group 2: 30 patients with CP and without prediabetes; and group 3: 30 controls. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, attachment loss, and marginal bone loss), and number of missing teeth were recorded. UWS samples were collected, and UWS flow rate (UWSFR) was measured. IL-6 and MMP-8 were measured in UWS using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Mean FBG and HbA1c levels were significantly higher in group 1 (119.3 –3.1 mg/dL and 6.1% –0.2%) than group 2 (80.1 –3.5 mg/dL and 4.8% –0.5%; P <0.001) and group 3 (75.3 –2.2 mg/dL and 4.3% –0.2%; P <0.05). UWSFR was significantly higher in groups 2 (0.53 –0.1 mL/ minute; P <0.05) and 3 (0.51 –0.1 mL/minute; P <0.01) than group 1 (0.33 –0.05 mL/minute). Periodontal parameters were worse in group 1 (P <0.05) and group 2 (P <0.05) than group 3. There was no difference in periodontal parameters, numbers of missing teeth, or salivary IL-6 and MMP-8 levels between patients in groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: Salivary IL-6 and MMP-8 levels are elevated in patients with CP with and without prediabetes.