Mortality and Morbidity in HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF Patients with Diabetes in the Middle East
Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.
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Objectives: We sought to estimate the mortality and morbidity in diabetic acute heart failure (AHF) patients stratified by left ventricular ejection fraction. Methods: We analyzed the data of patients with AHF from seven Middle Eastern countries (Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia) from February to November 2012, who were enrolled in a multinational registry of patients with heart failure (HF). Results: A total of 2258 AHF patients had diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 63.0±11.0 years (ranging from 18 to 99 years), and 60.3% (n = 1362) of the patients were males. The mean ejection fraction (EF) was 37.0±13.0%. HF with reduced EF (< 40%) (HFrEF) was observed in 1268 patients (56.2%), whereas 515 patients (22.8%) had mid-range (40–49%) (HFmrEF) and 475 patients (21.0%) had preserved EF (≥ 50%) (HFpEF). The overall cumulative all-cause mortalities at three- and 12-months follow-up were 11.8% (n = 266) and 20.7% (n = 467), respectively. Those with HFpEF were associated with lower three-months cumulative all-cause mortality compared to those with HFrEF (7.6% vs. 5.9%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31–0.95; p = 0.031), but not significantly different when compared to those with HFmrEF (aOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.53–1.40; p = 0.554). There were largely no significant differences among the groups with regards to the 12-months all-cause cumulative mortality (11% vs. 11% vs. 10%; p = 0.984). There were also no significant differences in re-hospitalization rates between the three HF groups not only at three months (23% vs. 20% vs. 22%; p = 0.520), but at one-year follow-up (28% vs. 30% vs. 32%; p = 0.335). Conclusions: Three-month cumulative all-cause mortality was high in diabetic HFrEF patients when compared to those with HFpEF. However, there were no significant differences in mortality at one-year follow-up between the HF groups. There were also no significant differences in re-hospitalization rates between the HF groups not only at three months but also at one-year follow-up in the Middle East.