Precision MedicineWhere have we reached and where are we headed?
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Conclusion: The journey to personalised cancer treatment continues and, happily, this goal may no longer be quite so elusive. The advent of immunohistochemistry and monoclonal antibodies were torchbearers for tailored treatment. Gene sequencing, the identification of genetic mutations and the development of small-molecule TKIs have also allowed us to move away from the beaten path of cytotoxic chemotherapy.26 The identification of other targets such as proteasomes and cyclin-dependent kinases has also helped significantly in this regard. Other areas of research in precision medicine include the Cancer Genome Atlas, integrated proteogenomic analysis, next-generation sequencing, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) mechanisms and translational research; these may result in designer drugs that pave the way for the near future.26 Nevertheless, while we seem to be moving in the right direction, we are still not past the winning post. Critically, all new drugs need to be validated in proper trials before they can be considered for clinical use, particularly as the detection of a target and the availability of a drug to hit that target does not guarantee clinically relevant efficacy.