Enthesopathic patterns of two South African female cadavers
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Abstract: Enthesopathy is considered to be an osseous phenomenon, either disease-specific or bone-site specific, which occurs at the enthesis of bone. Upon routine cadaveric dissection of the glenohumeral region in two Caucasian females, enthesopathy of the right proximal humerus was observed unilaterally in both cases. Case 1 exhibited an inconsistent pattern of bony protuberances and crests disper-sed across the lesser and greater tuberosities of the right humeral head. Varying degrees of ossification of the distal subscapularis muscle was also observed. Case 2 presented with a distinctively large enthesophyte that protruded supero-medially from the proximal right humerus. In addition, ossification of the distal-most aspect of the supraspinatus muscle was identified. Cases 1 and 2 were both reflective of osteophytic enthesopathy as proliferative change was clearly visible on the proximal aspect of each humerus.Whilst the presence of enthesopathies may be indicative of underlying pathology, it may prove beneficial to the field of bioarchaeology for the remodelling of lifestyles of ancient civilizations through the provision of current day variations as seen in these two case studies.