Culture, ethnicity, and socio-economic status as determinants of the management of patients with advanced heart failure who need palliative care: A clinical consensus statement from the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC, the ESC Patient Forum, and the European Association of Palliative Care
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Abstract: The delivery of effective healthcare entails the configuration and resourcing of health economies to address the burden of disease, including acute and chronic heart failure, that affects local populations. Increasing migration is leading to more multicultural and ethnically diverse societies worldwide, with migration research suggesting that minority populations are often subject to discrimination, socio-economic disadvantage, and inequity of access to optimal clinical support. Within these contexts, the provision of person-centred care requires medical and nursing staff to be aware of and become adept in navigating the nuances of cultural diversity, and how that can impact some individuals and families entrusted to their care. This paper will examine current evidence, provide practical guidance, and signpost professionals on developing cultural competence within the setting of patients with advanced heart failure who may benefit from palliative care.