Prognostic factors for failed Pavlik harness treatment in infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip: a retrospective cohort study
Hassan Khamis, Amar
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Purpose: Pavlik harness treatment is the most common treatment in newborns diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The success rates and predictors for failure have been debated over the last decade. In this study, we explored our treatment failure rate and potential prognostic factors that could predict the failure of Pavlik harness (PH) treatment in patients with DDH. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-fve patients were treated with PH based on the Graf hip types of classifcation. Age, gender, frst born status, family history, foot deformity, plagiocephaly, breech presentation, hip abduction, hip stability, Graf hip type, Galeazzi sign, bilateralism, and femoral nerve palsy were tested as predictors for failure in multivariate logistic regression mode. Success and failure were determined by the normalization of the hip based on the Graf hip classifcation. Results: The failure rate of patients treated with Pavlik harness was 16.6% which is within the reported range of failure rate. The mean age of patients who were successfully treated was 6.73 weeks in comparison to 8.84 weeks for those who failed. Age, plagiocephaly, hip instability, Graf classifcation, and the development of femoral nerve palsy were found to be predictors for failure of PH treatment upon univariate analysis only. However, only the presence of Galeazzi sign, hip instability, high grades of Graf hip classifcation, and the development of femoral nerve palsy proved to be independent predictors for failed PH treatment upon multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Pavlik harness treatment is a successful treatment with an average success of 83.4%. Several independent predictors for failure of PH treatment have been identifed. These include a positive Galeazzi sign, a frankly dislocated hip, Graf types III and IV, and the development of femoral nerve palsy.