Non-coding RNAs as biomarkers of myocardial infarction
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Abstract: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) encompass a family of ubiquitous RNA molecules that lack protein-coding potential and have tissue-specific expression. A significant body of evidence indicates that ncRNA’s aberrant expression plays a critical role in disease onset and development. NcRNAs’ biochemical characteristics such as disease-associated concentration changes, structural stability, and high abundance in body fluids make them promising prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the term in use to describe MI’s early phase, is generally diagnosed by physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), and the presence of specific biomarkers. In this regard, compared to standard MI biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponin isoforms (cTnT & cTnI) and the Creatinine Kinase (CK), ncRNAs appears to provide better sensitivity and specificity, ensuring a rapid and correct diagnosis, an earlier treatment, and consequently a good prognosis for the patients. This review aims to summarize and discuss the most promising and recent data on the potential clinical use of circulating ncRNAs as MI biomarkers. Specifically, we focused primarily on miRNAs and lncRNAs, highlighting their significant specificity and sensitivity, discussing their limitations, and suggesting possible overcoming approaches.