Glass-ionomer and calcium silicate-based cements interactions with human dentine in health and disease: Two-photon fluorescence microscopy and Raman spectroscopy analysis.
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Objectives: To investigate the potential mineralising effects of calcium silicate-based dentine replacement material (Biodentine™) in comparison with glass-ionomer cement (GIC) (Fuji IX™) on different human dentine substrates using a multimodal non-invasive optical assessment. Methods: Cements were applied on artificially demineralised or naturally carious dentine and stored for 4 weeks in phosphate-rich media +/- tetracycline used for mineralisation labelling. Interfacial dentine was examined from the same sample and location before and after aging using two-photon fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy was used to detect changes in the mineral content of dentine. Results: Significant changes in the fluorescence intensity and lifetime were detected in partially demineralised dentine and caries-affected dentine underneath both tested cements, after storage (p < 0.001). This was associated with a significant increase in the mineral content as indicated by the increased intensity of the phosphate Raman peak located at 959 cm−1 (p < 0.0001). Caries-infected dentine showed significant fluorescence changes under Biodentine™ after storage (p < 0.001), but not under GIC (p = 0.44).