Checkpoint molecules on infiltrating immune cells in colorectal tumor microenvironment
Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancer types worldwide, with a high mortality rate due to metastasis. The tumor microenvironment (TME) contains multiple interactions between the tumor and the host, thus determining CRC initiation and progression. Various immune cells exist within the TME, such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs). The immunotherapy approach provides novel opportunities to treat solid tumors, especially toward immune checkpoints. Despite the advances in the immunotherapy of CRC, there are still obstacles to successful treatment. In this review, we highlighted the role of these immune cells in CRC, with a particular emphasis on immune checkpoint molecules involved in CRC pathogenesis.