Prevalence of High-Risk Disordered Eating Amongst Adolescents and Young Adults in the Middle East: A Scoping Review
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Abstract: High-risk disordered eating (HRDE) negatively affects physical, mental, and social wellbeing. This scoping review aimed to estimate the prevalence of HRDE amongst adolescents and young adults in the Middle East. MEDLINE database was searched for studies published in English or Arabic from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2020, estimating HRDE prevalence (using the Eating Attitudes Test 26 or 40 item questionnaire) in the Middle East. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts of potentially eligible records, followed by data extraction from eligible studies. Nineteen studies (n = 16,288; 65.8% female) from Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates were included. Prevalence of HRDE varied considerably across countries and was lowest amongst adolescents in Israel (F 8.2%; M 2.8%) and highest amongst university students in Egypt (F 75.8%; M 69.6%). Prevalence of highrisk for anorexia nervosa ranged from 0.0% in Jordan to 9.5% in Oman; high-risk for bulimia nervosa from 0.6% in Jordan to 1.0% in the United Arab Emirates; and high-risk for binge eating disorder was 1.0% and 1.8% in Turkey and Jordan, respectively. Future studies should employ a standardized two-stage design with clinical diagnosis to verify the prevalence of abnormal eating behaviours in the Middle East.