Vibrational Biospectroscopy: An Alternative Approach to Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis and Screening
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Abstract: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of death among women worldwide. Early detection and treatment are associated with a favourable prognosis and reduction in mortality. Unlike other common cancers, however, screening strategies lack the required sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to be successfully implemented in clinical practice and current diagnostic approaches are invasive, costly and time consuming. Such limitations highlight the unmet need to develop diagnostic and screening alternatives for EC, which should be accurate, rapid, minimally invasive and cost-effective. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, MidInfrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Raman, exploit the atomic vibrational absorption induced by interaction of light and a biological sample, to generate a unique spectral response: a “biochemical fingerprint”. These are non-destructive techniques and, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, have been shown over the last decade to provide discrimination between cancerous and healthy samples, demonstrating a promising role in both cancer screening and diagnosis. The aim of this review is to collate available evidence, in order to provide insight into the present status of the application of vibrational biospectroscopy in endometrial cancer diagnosis and screening, and to assess future prospects.