Present status and future directions: Hydraulic materials for endodontic use
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Background: Hydraulic materials are used in Endodontics due to their hydration characteristics namely the formation of calcium hydroxide when mixing with water and also because of their hydraulic properties. These materials are presented in vari-ous consistencies and delivery methods. They are composed primarily of tricalcium and dicalcium silicate, and also include a radiopacifier, additives and an aqueous or a non- aqueous vehicle. Only materials whose primary reaction is with water can be classified as hydraulic. Objectives: Review of the classification of hydraulic materials by Camilleri and the literature pertaining to specific uses of hydraulic cements in endodontics namely intra- coronal, intra- radicular and extra- radicular. Review of the literature on the ma-terial properties linked to specific uses providing the current status of these materials after which future trends and gaps in knowledge could be identified. Methods: The literature was reviewed using PUBMED, and for each clinical use, the in vitro properties such as physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial character-istics and clinical data were extracted and evaluated. Results: A large number of publications were retrieved for each clinical use and these were grouped depending on the property type being investigated. Conclusions: The hydraulic cements have made a difference in clinical outcomes. The main shortcoming is the poor testing methodologies employed which provide very limited information and also inhibits adequate clinical translation. Furthermore, the clinical protocols need to be updated to enable the materials to be employed effectively.