Oral Manifestations and Dentofacial Anomalies in Beta Thalassaemia Major Children in Dubai (UAE): A Case Control Study 2015
Al Raeesi, Shaikha,
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Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify special oral and dentofacial manifestations peculiar to beta thalassaemia major children in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Materials and Methods: A total of 38 Emirati children with beta thalassaemia major (mean age =10.18 ± 3.19) and 76 healthy Emirati children (mean age = 10.79 ± 3.54) were recruited from Dubai Genetic & Thalassaemia Centre, along with public schools in Dubai. A dental examination including caries assessment using dmft/DMFT indices, oral hygiene assessment using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index, an assessment of occlusal anomalies, dentofacial abnormalities and soft tissue abnormalities was conducted. Results: There was a clear and statistically significant difference in caries experience amongst thalassaemia children compared to the healthy controls with DMFT (2.73 ± 0.22 vs 0.21 ± 0.56, p-value = 0.017). The Met Need Index (MNI) and the Restorative Index (RI) were calculated from the mean dmft/DMFT of the studied sample. Children in the thalassaemia group received less treatment than their controls in all age groups; however, this was not shown to be statistically significant. Calculus Index (CI) was found to be significantly higher among children with beta thalassaemia (0.27 ± 0.43) compared with healthy controls (0.09 ± 0.32) p-value 0.002. Conversely, the proportion of gingivitis was found to be significantly lower among children with thalassaemia compared with that of the healthy controls 44.7% and 69.7% respectively ( p-value = 0.009). On the other hand, beta thalassaemia subjects had a higher proportion of class II Molar Angle Malocclusion (40%) compared to the healthy controls class II (25%). Children with thalassaemia had significantly higher proportion of retained primary teeth compared with healthy controls (18.4% vs. 0%, p-value = 0.001). It was obsereved that gingival pigmentation in children with thalassaemia was significantly higher compared with healthy controls (23.7% vs 0%, p-value = 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study concluded that children with thalassaemia in Dubai had higher caries rate compared to healthy children. Other oral and dentofacial anomalies were observed in the group. There is a need to implement awareness programs to alert patients’ parents and caretakers of the need to provide better care.