Monkeypox and Its Possible Sexual Transmission: Where Are We Now with Its Evidence?
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Abstract: Monkeypox is a rare disease but is increasing in incidence in different countries since the first case was diagnosed in the UK by the United Kingdom (UK) Health Security Agency on 6 May 2022. As of 9 August, almost 32,000 cases have been identified in 89 countries. In endemic areas, the monkeypox virus (MPXV) is commonly transmitted through zoonosis, while in non-endemic regions, it is spread through human-to-human transmission. Symptoms can include flu-like symptoms, rash, or sores on the hands, feet, genitalia, or anus. In addition, people who did not take the smallpox vaccine were more likely to be infected than others. The exact pathogenesis and mechanisms are still unclear; however, most identified cases are reported in men who have sex with other men (MSM). According to the CDC, transmission can happen with any sexual or non-sexual contact with the infected person. However, a recent pooled meta-analysis reported that sexual contact is involved in more than 91% of cases. Moreover, it is the first time that semen analysis for many patients has shown positive monkeypox virus DNA. Therefore, in this review, we will describe transmission methods for MPXV while focusing mainly on potential sexual transmission and associated sexually transmitted infections. We will also highlight the preventive measures that can limit the spread of the diseases in this regard.